The New 'Bionic Eye'

Retinitis Pigmentosa, Argus II, Second Sight, RP, optic nerve, Retina, bionic eye

The Argus II, a new retinal prosthesis, can restore partial sight to those blinded by a degenerative eye disease called Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP).  RP affects about 100,00 people in the United States, and usually results in total blindness.  In RP, the light-sensing cells of the retina are affected, but the optic nerve remains intact. 

Immune System Has 'Memory'

CD4 cells, immune system, kids eating dirt, cell memory, pathogens

How do we gain immunity to all of those nasty bugs out there? Our immune cells creats a 'memory' of the invading pathogen and alert the body if it ever returns.

New research suggests that these immune cells can develop memories for things the body has not come into contact with.  How?  Either from harmless microbes or by borrowing memories from more experienced cells.